VPN Client Setup – The Basics KB1039291

KB1039291

VPN Client Setup

Windows VPN CLients
Cisco IPSec
Cisco SSL
Sonicwall IPSec
Sonicwall SSL
PPTP

MAC VPN CLients
Cisco IPSec
Cisco SSL
Sonicwall SSL
PPTP

What is VPN?
Virtual Private Network. Communicates from remote network to private network.

Why do we need it?
Securely access computers, files, connecting Outlook to Exchange remotely.

How do I set it up?
There are several different VPN clients to use.

What info is needed?
Local user or domain login, public IP/domain name, VPN group name, pre-shared key, username, and password.

Authentication methods
LDAP – Allows applications running on almost any platform to obtain directory info.
RADIUS – Authenticates to a RADIUS server installed on Active Directory.
Local Accounts – Uses local user accounts on the firewall itself.

When is it billable?
VPN client installs are non-billable. Troubleshooting connections are billable.

Public vs Private IPs
There are static and dynamic addresses.
Public IPs face outward to the internet.
Private IPs are for internal networks.

PCF files
Profile Configuration File. Automatically configures VPN client when imported.

TCP and UDP
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented protocol.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol.
TCP will wait for information if it gets lost during delivery. UDP will not.

VPN Process
How the connection process unfolds

Installation
Communication
Authentication
Establishing a connection
Connected

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Try the VPN connection on your computer

Connection
Authentication
Group issues

The client only partially installs
Check to see if there is an error code
Uninstall the client
Clear temp files
Remove other VPN clients*
Reboot

Status stuck on “Connecting”
Ping Public IP or VPN domain name
New ISP or other ISP issue
Connectivity at remote location
Office down

Same subnet
192.168.0.x on both remote and office locations

See if their AV blocks communication
Trend Micro
Symantec
AVG

See if their firewall blocks communication
Windows Firewall

Find out if ports are blocked
Telnet
Open Command Prompt
Type telnet PublicIPAddress port

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Common VPN ports
TCP 1723
TCP 1701
UDP 500
TCP 4500

Allow inbound and outbound ports
Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall > Advanced Settings > Inbound Rules (or Outbound Rules) >
New Rule > Select Port > Click Next > Select which protocol (TCP or UDP) > Select Specific local ports > Type port or port range > Click Next > Select Allow the connection > Click Next > Select Domain, Private, and Public > Click Next > Name the rule > Click Finish >

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Cannot get past the group name or username screen
Check spelling
Case sensitive usernames
Verify username
Reset password

VPN connects, but there is no access to anything

Same subnet or wrong subnet
192.168.0.x on both office and remote locations
APIPA address – 169.254.x.x

Connect by IP or Fully Qualified Domain Name
Servername.domain.local instead of servername

Reinstall the VPN client.
Remove VPN client
Reboot
Reinstall

Consult Tier 2
Less common issues (Example: DNE Update for Cisco)
Firewall configuration
Escalate

Connecting to a firewall

Find the information to connect to a firewall
Sonicwall
Cisco

 

Put the IP address into a browser
May need to specify https:// and/or port number
Common ports: 8080 and 4443.
https://ipaddress:port

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Multiple consoles
ASDM
SSH (PuTTY)

Setting up a local user in the firewall
Sonicwall
Cisco

Local versus AD accounts


Local

LDAP not supported
Few users allowed
Not using Active Directory
ADPreferred authorization method
Less hassle on user’s end

Connect to Sonicwall Navigate to:
Users > Local Users > Add User… > Enter username and password > Go to Groups tab >

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Check Groups – Everyone, Trusted Users, and VPN
Highlight group name

Click the right arrow below to send it to Member Of:
Go to VPN Access tab

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Go to VPN Access tab
Find “Firewalled Subnets” under Networks and Highlight it
Click the right arrow below to send it to the Access List
Click OK

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Connect to Cisco Navigate to:
Configuration
Remote Access VPN
AAA/Local Users
Local Users
Click Add
Enter username and password
Set privilege to No ASDM, SSH, Telnet, or Console access
Click OK
Click Apply
Click Save

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Cisco Meraki
Escalate to Tier 2

Domain User Setup
Setting up or modifying a domain user
Active Directory

Suggested account setup
Username = (First initial of first name)(last name)
Password = Password1

Password settings
Uncheck all settings

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Uses Routing and Remote Access
Active Directory group
Dial-in tab
Local firewall user

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VPNs on laptops

Will not affect work functionality

How users might ask
“I need to get to my folders”
Could mean desktop folders (RDP)
Could mean server folders (Mapped Drives)

Verify
Can they access the resources they were calling in about?

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