Category Archives: DNS

How to Assign a Static IP Address in Windows 7, 8, XP, or Vista – KB10391687

KB10391687

How to Assign a Static IP Address in Windows 7, 8, XP, or Vista

When organizing your home network it’s easier to assign each computer it’s own IP address than using DHCP. Here we will take a look at doing it in XP, Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 8.1.

If you have a home network with several computes and devices, it’s a good idea to assign each of them a specific address. If you use DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), each computer will request and be assigned an address every time it’s booted up. When you have to do troubleshooting on your network, it’s annoying going to each machine to figure out what IP they have.

Using Static IPs prevents address conflicts between devices and allows you to manage them more easily. Assigning IPs to Windows is essentially the same process, but getting to where you need to be varies between each version.

Windows 7 or Windows 8.x

To change the computer’s IP address in Windows 7, type network and sharing into the Search box in the Start Menu and select Network and Sharing Center when it comes up. If you are in Windows 8.x it will be on the Start Screen itself, like the screenshot at the top of this article.

1start menu

Then when the Network and Sharing Center opens, click on Change adapter settings. This will be the same on Windows 7 or 8.x.

2adapter

Right-click on your local adapter and select Properties.

3local area connection

In the Local Area Connection Properties window highlight Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)then click the Properties button.

4properties

Now select the radio button Use the following IP address and enter in the correct IP, Subnet mask, and Default gateway that corresponds with your network setup. Then enter your Preferred and Alternate DNS server addresses. Here we’re on a home network and using a simple Class C network configuration and Google DNS.

Check Validate settings upon exit so Windows can find any problems with the addresses you entered. When you’re finished click OK.

5entersettings

Now close out of the Local Area Connections Properties window.

6closeoutof

Windows 7 will run network diagnostics and verify the connection is good. Here we had no problems with it, but if you did, you could run the network troubleshooting wizard.

7verify

Now you can open the command prompt and do an ipconfig  to see the network adapter settings have been successfully changed.

8verify

Windows Vista

Changing your IP from DHCP to a Static address in Vista is similar to Windows 7, but getting to the correct location is a bit different. Open the Start Menu, right-click on Network, and select Properties.

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The Network and Sharing Center opens…click on Manage network connections.

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Right-click on the network adapter you want to assign an IP address and click Properties.

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Highlight Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) then click the Properties button.

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Now change the IP, Subnet mask, Default Gateway, and DNS Server Addresses. When you’re finished click OK.

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You’ll need to close out of Local Area Connection Properties for the settings to go into effect.

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Open the Command Prompt and do an ipconfig to verify the changes were successful.

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Windows XP

In this example we’re using XP SP3 Media Center Edition and changing the IP address of the Wireless adapter.

To set a Static IP in XP right-click on My Network Places and select Properties.

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Right-click on the adapter you want to set the IP for and select Properties.

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Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click the Properties button.

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Now change the IP, Subnet mask, Default Gateway, and DNS Server Addresses. When you’re finished click OK.

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You will need to close out of the Network Connection Properties screen before the changes go into effect.

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Again you can verify the settings by doing an ipconfig in the command prompt. In case you’re not sure how to do this, click on Start then Run.

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In the Run box type in cmd and click OK.

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Then at the prompt type in ipconfig and hit Enter. This will show the IP address for the network adapter you changed.

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If you have a small office or home network, assigning each computer a specific IP address makes it a lot easier to manage and troubleshoot network connection problems.

Common Command Line Commands – KB1039998

KB1039998

Common Command Line Commands
* Any of these commands can also use the switch /? for help inside Command Line. *
** Not all of these commands need to be run in an Administrator Command Line, but it is suggested to always run CMD as Admin. **
*** There may be additional switches for these commands. These are just the most commonly used switches. ***
Start Command Prompt – Start -> in search field, type “cmd” without quotes -> right click and click Run as Administrator

1. Ping – Sends a request packet to the target host and waits for a response. It will then display the response in the Command Line window. Usage:

  • ping IpAddress
  • ping ComputerName.DomainName.Local – Does not always need to have .DomainName.Local. If there are issues with pinging via ComputerName, try the Fully Qualified Domain Name.
  • ping ComputerNameOrIpAddress -t – Sends a continuous ping to the device until you cancel it with CTRL+C.
  • ping ComputerNameOrIpAddress -4 – If pings are coming back using IPv6, use the -4 switch to only get IPv4 addresses back.

2. IP Config – Gathers IP information of the device running the command. Common switches are:

  • ipconfig – Displays IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway for each adapter.
  • ipconfig /all – Displays the full TCP/IP configuration for all adapters.
  • ipconfig /flushdns – Clears the DNS resolver cache.
  • ipconfig /registerdns – Initiates manual registration for DNS names.
  • ipconfig /release – Messages the DHCP server to release the IP address configuration. Check with Tier 2 before using this command. You will lose all communication to the computer this is run on.
  • ipconfig /renew – Messages the DHCP to renew IP address configuration.

3. System File Checker – Scans for corruptions in system files and restores corrupted or missing files. Usage:

  • sfc /scannow

4. QWinsta – Displays information about Terminal Sessions. Look for the username of the account that you need to log off and keep in mind the ID of the user. Usage:

  • qwinsta -server ServerNameOrIpAddress

5. RWinsta – Sends commands to the remote session. Use the ID number in order to log off the user that the ID number belongs to. Usage:

  • rwinsta -server ComputerNameOrIpAddress IdNumber

6. NSLookup – Tests and troubleshoots DNS servers. Usage:

  • nslookup – Displays information about the Default DNS server.
  • set type=mx – After you use nslookup, you can specify which records you are looking for. After you set the type, enter the domain name.

7. Telnet – Text oriented communication using a virtual terminal connection. Usage:

  • telnet IpAddressDomainNameOrComputerName PortNumber – telnet smtp.google.com 25. This will test the connection from your computer to smtp.google.com on port 25.

8. System Info – Displays the system’s information in Command Line. Usage:

  • systeminfo | more – You can view system uptime, Operating system, and System Manufacturer.

9. Check Disk – Creates and displays a status report for a disk. Usage:

  • chkdsk (/f /r) – Do not use parenthisis. Chkdsk by itself will display the status report. Using /f will fix errors on the disk. Using /r will locate bad sectors and recover readable data. Both switches will require the computer to be rebooted and will run before boot. This will require approval before using these switches.

10. Shutdown – Initiates a shutdown command. Usage:

  • shutdown.exe /m ComputerNameOrIpAddress /f /r /t 0 /d p:0:0 – Shuts the computer down and forces (/f) the logoff and a reboot (/r) instantly (specified by /t TimeInSeconds) while sending a report to the system (/d p:0:0) saying it is a planned shutdown. You only need to specify /m ComputerNameOrIpAddress if you are attempting to shut down a remote computer.

11. Net Stat – Displays incoming and outgoing connections. Usage:

  • netstat -an – The -a switch displays all active connections and ports on which the computer is listening. The -n switch displays active connections.
  • netstat -an | find “PortNumber” – Finds all connections that are using the specified port.

12. NBT Stat – Helps troubleshoot NetBIOS name resolution problems. Usage:

  • nbtstat -an IpAddress – Useful tool if you know the IP address of a computer but not the name. This will  return the name and MAC address of the device.

13. Change Directory – Changes the directory of the Command Line to wherever you specify. Usage:

  • DriveLetter: – If you need to change the Command Line to a different drive, use this command.    Example:      c:     will change it to the C: drive.
  • cd c:usersUserName – Changes the Command Line to c:usersUserName.

14. Trace Route – Displays the route information and transit delays to a specific address. Usage:

  • tracert DomainNameOrIpAddress – You will see a list of hops that it takes to get to the destination. If anything fails, you will see where in the route it is failing.

15. Task List – Displays all processes the computer is currently running. Usage:

  • tasklist – Displays process name, process ID, session name, session number, and memory usage. You will only need to look at the process name (Image Name) and process ID (PID).

16. Task Kill – Kills whichever task you specify. Usage:

  • taskkill /switch – /PID PID specifies which process ID you want to kill. /IM ImageName specificies which image name you want to kill. Examples:
    taskkill /pid 2000
    taskkill /im chrome.exe

17. W32TM – Diagnose, view, and change Windows Time information.

  • w32tm /config /update – Updates current time configuration if there were any changes made.
  • w32tm /resync – Resynchronizes computer’s time as soon as possible.
  • To change Windows Time Server, on PDC, run w32tm /config /syncfromflags:manual /manualpeerlist:0.pool.ntp.org,1.pool.ntp.org,2.pool.ntp.org,3.pool.ntp.org. You will then need to run w32tm /config /update on the PDC and any device that needs time updated, or you can reboot the machines.

18. Remote Desktop Connection – Connects your computer to a remote computer. Usage:

  • mstsc /switch – Mstsc will start remote desktop. If you add any switches, they can help with the look/layout of the connection window. /F (full screen) is the most common switch. /Console can be used if you cannot connect normally.
  • Example: mstsc /f /console

19. Net Start and Net Stop – Starts or stops services by service name. Usage:

  • netstart ServiceName – Starts service.
  • netstop ServiceName – Stops service.
  • && – Runs multiple commands as soon as possible without delay. Example: net stop explorer.exe && net start explorer.exe.

20. VSS Admin – Manages the Volume Shadow Copy Service. Usage:

  • vssadmin list writers – Lists all subscribed volume shadow copy writers on the system. This can be helpful when troubleshooting backups issues.

Website isn’t loading internally but is externally KB1039347

KB1039347

Description:   My Website isn’t loading internally but is externally

Common customer description:  We recently changed Web Host providers and ever since then we haven’t been able to load the website inside of our network but we can from at home.

Probing questions:  When did this start happening?

How many people are affected?

What is the URL of the website?

Do you know the IP address it’s supposed to resolve to?

Are you able to get to the site externally (outside of the network)?

Steps to isolate:  If it’s able to be resolved externally but not inside of the network, this is most likely because of internal DNS needs to be either setup properly or server cache needs to be cleaned out.  Here are some steps to isolate the problem:

-Ping the URL of the website both internally and externally

-Try to load the website from both inside and outside of the network

-If you load the correct website outside of the network, external DNS is properly configured and the cause is internal DNS

Steps to resolve:  At this point we should have the IP address that is being resolved to both internally and externally, also should have the URL.  To start to resolve this you’ll need to do the following*:

* This is only an example using the sub-domain WWW. Depending on which sub-domain they need adjusted will be the A record you need to adjust. If they cannot get to domain-name.com internally, but www.domain-name.com works, the A record you need to change will be (Same as parent folder).

  1. Log into the server that is hosting their internal DNS
  2. There should be a forward lookup zone for the domain of the URL
  3. Once inside of the lookup zone, there should be an A record for WWW. This record should have the old IP address of the old website, change this to the new IP address.
  4. Also, there should be a Start of Authority record that has the old IP address, change this to the new IP address
  5. After these changes are done, right click on the Server Name and select Clear Cache
  6. Will also need to do the following commands on the server: IPconfig /flushdns after this command is done run this command:  IPconfig /registerdns
  7. Once this is complete should be able to load the website on the server and will take some time to propagate through the network